Brown spots often appear in pregnant women, during lactation and even on certain days of the menstrual cycle. Typically, such pigmentation disappears when the composition of hormones in the body normalise.
For example, after childbirth or after completing breastfeeding.
However, in some cases, spots remain in this case we are talking about a hormonal disorder.
This is the key reason. After all, what is a brown spot? It is a manifestation of an excessive accumulation of the pigment melanin in one place. Depending on how much pigment has accumulated, the spot has a color from light yellow to brown.
Melanin plays the role of a protector of our skin: it tries to protect our skin as much as it could from damage by UV rays. But when their effect is too long and too aggressive, the melanocytes (cells synthesizing pigment) work more actively and produce excess of melanin.
Skin lesions, thermal burns are another very common cause of pigmentation. Injured skin cannot fully fulfill the barrier function and cannot cope with the negative effects of sunlight.
Diseases of the internal organs.
First of all - the kidneys, gallbladder, liver and intestines.
Deficiency of certain elements in the body.
Copper. Its deficiency is manifested not only in violation of skin pigmentation, but also in hair pigmentation. Early gray hair may be one of the signs of copper deficiency.
Nicotinic acid (Vitamin PP). It takes part in the synthesis of many hormones and enzymes.
Vitamin A. It is responsible for the condition of our skin. Vitamin A is synthesized in the liver.
Zinc It helps distribute and deliver vitamin A to the organs.
Vitamin B9 (folic acid). Slows down the excessive synthesis of melanin, protects the skin from ultraviolet rays.
Vitamin B12. Normalizes the production of pigment, is responsible for skin color.
Vitamin C. Increases local skin immunity, works as an antioxidant.
Vitamin D. Our main skin protector, preventing the penetration of ultraviolet rays into the deeper layers. Regulates the production of melanin.
Vitamin E. Corrects estrogen production, thereby regulating the synthesis of melanin.
An excess of some elements in the body.
First of all, about the iron. When there is too much of it, hemochromatosis - pigmented cirrhosis can develop. The disease itself is considered hereditary and is transmitted genetically. But if a person adheres to a healthy diet, then hemochromatosis may not manifest itself in anything. The disease causes a disorder of iron metabolism: it accumulates excessively in the liver and increases the concentration of pigment in tissues and organs.
In addition, an excess of iron impedes the absorption of zinc and copper.
Taking certain medications.
As a rule, antibiotics and drugs that increase the sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet light.
Alcohol abuse. Some types of alcoholic drinks contain a lot of Tyramine (TIE-ruh-meen), which provokes the accumulation of pigment in tissues.